Vortrag

„Challenges for the European Energy Policy of the next years“

Eine Veranstaltungreihe, bei denen namhafte Persönlichkeiten aus der europäischen Politik vor einem ausgewählten Teilnehmerkreis zu aktuellen Fragen der Zeit Stellung nehmen

Details

Vortrag

Am 31. Mai 05 organisierte das Europabüro der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung einen Luncheon Roundtable mit Herrn Andris Piebalgs, Kommissar für Energie, zum Thema „Herausforderungen für die europäische Energiepolitik in den nächsten fünf Jahren“.

Zu Beginn seines Vortrages wies Piebalgs auf die dringende Notwendigkeit hin, die europäischen Energiepolitik vor dem Hintergrund eines sich rasch verändernden Energiemarktes weiterzuentwickeln. Der Energiesektor sei entscheidend für Wettbewerb, nachhaltige Entwicklung, Wachstum und Beschäftigung.

Der Trend zu höheren Öl- und Gaspreisen sei offensichtlich: Während europäische Energieressourcen abnähmen, steige der Bedarf in allen Sektoren stetig um 1-2 % pro Jahr. Gleichzeitig würden Länder wie Indien und China weiter explosiv wachsen. Werde nichts unternommen, so nehme die Abhängigkeit der EU von Energieversorgung von außen weiter zu. Die Importrate werde, nach derzeitigen Trends von 50% auf 70% im Jahre 2030 ansteigen. Zu 90% sei die EU dann abhängig von Öl- und zu 70% von Gasimporten.

Daher seien die nächsten fünf Jahre entscheidend für die europäische Energiepolitik. Piebalgs nannte drei wesentliche Ziele: Zum ersten die Gewährleistung der Energieversorgung vor dem Hintergrund hoher Ölpreise und steigender Nachfrage. Zum zweiten gelte es, einen funktions- und wettbewerbsfähigen Binnenmarkt im Bereich Energie zu etablieren, um konkurrenzfähige Preise für Konsumenten und Unternehmen zu gewährleisten. Und drittens ein Beitrag zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung: Die Verpflichtungen des Kyoto Protokolls zur Reduktion von CO2 Emissionen müssten eingehalten werden.

Um diese Ziele in der europäischen Energiepolitik zu erreichen, nannte Piebalgs sechs Prioritäten:

Erstens, eine Reduktion der Energienachfrage durch Effizienzsteigerung. Trotz der insgesamt guten Bilanz im Bereich Energieeffizienz, werde noch rund ein Fünftel der Energie verschwendet. Schon einfache Verhaltensänderungen (wie z.B. Computer und Geräte auf stand-by zu schalten und in Energiesparlampen, Isolierung und Thermostate zu investieren) könnten in der Gesamtnachfrage der EU einen großen Unterschied machen. Energieeinsparungen dienten neben den Ersparnissen für den einzelnen Verbraucher und die Industrie zudem noch anderen politischen Zielen: Der Einsparung bei Kraftstoffimporten und einer Verbesserung der Handelsbalance, Schaffung von Arbeitsplätzen im Bereich neuer energieeffizienter Technologie und im Dienstleistungsbereich, Reduktion von CO2-Emissionen und Schaffung von Exportmöglichkeiten. Die Kommission werde im Juni ein Grünbuch zur „Energieeffizienz“ vorlegen, dass den Rahmen für den Konsultationsprozess abstecken werde.

Zweitens betonte Piebalgs die besondere Rolle der Kommission für die Funktionsfähigkeit des Binnenmarktes für Gas und Elektrizität. Derzeit seien in diesem Bereich gegen zehn Mitgliedstaaten Vertragsverletzungsverfahren im Gange. Mit der vollständigen Implementierung der Richtlinien in allen Mitgliedstaaten sei ein beträchtlicher Fortschritt in diesem Bereich zu erwarten, besonders was die Einführung von Regulierungsbehörden mit einer Fülle von Kompetenzen und die Entflechtung von Fernleitungs- und Verteilernetzbetreibern betreffe. Piebalgs gab auch seiner Hoffnung Ausdruck, dass in Deutschland das Energiewirtschaftsgesetzt noch vor der Sommerpause angenommen werde.

Ob weitere Rechtssetzung in europäischem Rahmen notwendig sei, sei noch nicht abzusehen. Dies hänge größtenteils davon ab, wie die Richtlinien sowohl auf Regierungs- wie auch auf Unternehmensebene in der Praxis umgesetzt würden. Ende 2005 werde die Kommission eine Evaluation des gemeinsamen Elektrizitäts- und Gasmarktes vornehmen, welche die Grundlage einer ausführlichen Debatte darstellen könne.

Als dritte Priorität führte Piebalgs die Förderung erneuerbarer Energien und die Erweiterung der Energiequellen an. Die Abhängigkeit Europas müsse reduziert werden. Außerdem trage der Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien durch eine Reduktion der Emissionen und die Schaffung neuer Arbeitsplätze dazu bei, die Ziele des Kyoto-Protokolls und der Lissabon-Agenda zu erreichen. Gerade im Bereich der Wind-Energie sei Europa führend. Die Kommission werde aber weiter Druck auf die Mitgliedstaaten ausüben, um den Anteil erneuerbarer Energie bis 2010 von derzeit 18% auf 22% zu erhöhen. Eine neue Priorität werde in diesem Zusammenhang auch der Biomasse (Biotreibstoffe im Transportbereich und Biomasse zur Energieerzeugung) eingeräumt.

Um auch künftig grüne Elektrizität am Markt zu etablieren und die vereinbarten Ziele zu erreichen, müsse weiter auf Direktbeihilfen zurückgegriffen werden. Derzeit, so Piebalgs, sei es jedoch noch verfrüht, ein harmonisiertes Beihilfensystem vorzuschlagen. Erst nach einer gründlichen Evaluation könne eine Langzeit-Strategie entwickelt werden. Aus diesem Grund werde die Kommission Ende des Jahres einen Bericht zur Finanzierung erneuerbarer Energiequellen vorlegen und darin die unterschiedlichen Beihilfensysteme analysieren.

Piebalgs forderte viertens auch ein besseres Zusammenwirken von Energiepolitik, Umweltpolitik und Forschung. Forschung und Technologie könnten wesentlich dazu beitragen, eine nachhaltige Energiezukunft zu gewährleisten. Als Beispiele neben den erneuerbaren Energien nannte er „clean coal“-Technologien, Kohlenstoffverbindungen, Wasserstoff- und Kraftstoffzellen und neue Technologien im Bereich Energieeffizienz. Piebalgs sprach sich im Sinne der Versorgungssicherheit und Versorgungsvielfalt dafür aus, der Kohle weiterhin eine wichtige Position im europäischen Energiemix einzuräumen. Er schlug deshalb vor, eine kohärente und ambitionierte Zusammenarbeit zwischen Kommission, Mitgliedstaaten und Industrie im Bereich „clean coal“ zu entwickeln.

In seinen weiteren Ausführungen unterstrich Piebalgs darüber hinaus die Notwendigkeit der Stärkung nuklearer Sicherheit. Wo Nuklearenergie einen Bestandteil des nationalen Energieportfolios bilde, sei deren absolute Sicherheit von ausschlaggebender Bedeutung.

In seinem letzten Punkt machte er deutlich, dass die Möglichkeiten auf der Versorgungsseite limitiert seien. Deswegen müsse die EU, ihre externen Beziehungen im Energiebereich stärken. Die EU werde fortfahren ihre bilaterale Kooperation mit den größten Produzentenländern (USA, Japan, China und Indien) wie auch mit Russland, den kaspischen Staaten, den Staaten im Mittelmeerraum und Norwegen zu intensivieren. Auch Möglichkeiten für einen neuen Dialog mit der OPEC würden ausgelotet. Wesentlich für eine Verbreiterung der Öl- und Gasversorgungsnetzwerke sei auch die Zusammenarbeit mit den Transitländern.

Zum Abschluss seiner Rede hob Piebalgs nochmals hervor, die Kommission werde alles unternehmen, um einen funktionsfähigen, nachhaltigen Markt zu entwickeln, der die Konsumenten zufrieden stelle und eine stabile und verlässliche Energieversorgung gewährleiste.

Nachfolgend finden Sie den Redetext von Kommissar Andris Piebalgs abgedruckt:

Ladies and Gentleman, Meine Damen und Herren,

Energy markets are changing rapidly, therefore, our energy policies must also evolve.

The Energy sector is crucial to competitiveness, sustainable development, growth and employment. It directly concerns all citizens in terms of access to energy at a reasonable price wherever they live.

Current trends are obvious: we are going to see higher oil and gas prices. Domestic EU energy resources are on a clear downward trend. At the same time, demand is raising across all sectors, at a steady 1-2 % per year. Much of the developing world, and notably China and India, will continue to grow explosively. The EU will become increasingly dependent on external energy supplies if nothing is done. At current trends, the EU import share will grow from 50% today to 70% in 2030. By then, the EU will be 90% dependent from oil imports and 70% from gas imports.

Against this background, I believe that the next five years will be a “watershed period” for energy policy. I would like to give my vision of what the European Union priorities for energy should be over the next years:

For the EU, energy policy must target three main objectives:

- to ensure the security of energy supply - we do not want more blackouts;

- to make the internal market in energy work and be competitive- which should lead to competitive prices for consumers and businesses;

- and to contribute to sustainable development – meet our Kyoto commitment notably in terms of reduction of CO2 emissions.

To meet these objectives, I have identified six priorities:

•Reduce energy demand through energy efficiency;

•Ensure the proper functioning of the internal markets for gas and electricity for the benefit of all our citizens;

•Promote renewable energy sources;

•Create a better linkage between energy policies and environmental and research policies;

•Strengthen nuclear safety and security, and

•Further develop external energy policy relations.

Prior to outlining specific concrete measures I would like to shortly underline process. A key requirement in order to get Europe’s energy policy right is preparation, discussion and consultation. Without this, the balance between our underlying objectives will not be met. Furthermore, action at Community level alone will be insufficient. A real partnership between the Commission, Parliament, Member States and Stakeholders is essential. It is my intention therefore to promote a widespread and inclusive consultative and preparation process.

The whole point of a coherent energy policy is to develop a package of mutually reinforcing policies that – together – achieve the three core objectives: security of supply, competitiveness and sustainable development. Indeed, each action should contribute not only to its core objective but to all three.

Energy Efficiency should be our first focus

A key priority for the Commission is energy demand management.

My argument is clear. Unless we have a truly sustainable approach to energy, we cannot have a stable economy and secure society.

Despite the good record of the EU regarding energy efficiency, it is estimated that one fifth of our energy is wasted. Simple changes in behaviour (such as switching off lights, computers and machines on stand-by) or small investments (such as in energy saving light bulbs, insulation or thermostats) can make a big difference to Europe’s total energy demand bill.

Reducing energy demand and improving energy efficiency must be central objectives. When re-launching the Lisbon Strategy, the European Council, in March, emphasised “the importance of energy efficiency as a factor in competitiveness and sustainable development”.

Energy savings can serve multiple political objectives. It can

• save money for individuals and industry alike (it is very cost effective, often with zero or negative costs)

• save on imported fuels and improve our trade balance

• save on the need for new infrastructure

• create jobs in new energy-efficient technology and service sectors

• reduce the environmental impact of energy, particularly CO2 emissions

• create export opportunities.

A High level group with Member States has already been established. The Commission will, next month, issue a Green Paper on “Energy Efficiency”. This Paper will set the frame and broaden the consultation process. It will outline what measures might need to be taken to mitigate the continuing 1-2% growth in energy demand I referred to earlier and to stabilise energy at present levels or even reduce it. The focus will be on helping industry and consumers save energy, particularly in the areas of transport and households, the least efficient sectors of our society.

This “Energy Efficiency Initiative” will be constantly developed and be put in concrete actions over the next time. The “Sustainable Energy Forum” will soon be established and will deal with Energy Efficiency as well as Renewable Energy. It will serve as a platform and further focus the discussion.

Renewable Energy

With regard to the supply side, we have to think of diversifying energy sources. One of my priorities is therefore promoting renewable energy sources as one important part of the energy mix. Certainly, Europe is the world’s leader especially in wind energy and Germany is one of the leaders in that field.

However, there is still some potential to be realised. Consequently, the Commission will maintain pressure on Member States to achieve promises on Renewables. Currently the EU is on course to achieve an 18% share of Renewables in electricity production by 2010, compared to the 22% target in the Renewables directive.

Clear action is necessary to continue this trend. It is obvious that direct support measures will remain essential in the future to ensure sufficient penetration of green electricity in the market and to meet our agreed targets.

The Commission’s Communication on the financing of renewable energy sources to be published by the end of this year will therefore concentrate on evaluating the many different support schemes which actually exist in Europe.

At this stage, I believe that it is premature to propose a harmonised European support scheme. We first have to do a thorough analysis of the current divergent national systems and experiences in Member States. E.g.: what are the current best practices? What are the implications on the internal market? Only after having a clear picture, it will be possible to indicate a direction for a necessary long term strategy – for the period after 2010. I am going to look very carefully at this matter. I am also willing to discuss this issue in the framework of the above mentioned Sustainable Energy Forum.

We also seek to give a fresh priority to biomass including both biofuels for transport and biomass in electricity generation, including cogeneration. A Communication on the subject of biomass will propose a new action plan.

Further developing Renewable Energy is one example for the integrated approach to energy policy I described earlier. It is of importance not only to reduce our import dependency. It as well contributes to both our Kyoto and Lisbon objectives, as it helps reducing greenhouse emissions and creates jobs.

Internal Market of Energy

One of the three objectives, the delivery of a competitive single market for energy is, of course, an area where the Commission sees its own role as very important. Fair competition clearly requires a level playing field and the need for Community legislation in this respect have proved to be important.

The Commission is closely pursuing Member States which have not yet transposed the gas and electricity Directiv es into national laws. There are now infringement procedures against 10 Member States ongoing for not transposing one or both Directives. Among these are many large markets as well as those with a central strategic location in the EU, such as Germany and Belgium .

I expect significant progress once the new Directives are fully effective in all Member States, especially regarding the introduction of regulatory authorities with a full set of competences and the reinforcement of unbundling of the transmission and distribution system operators. The internal market relies on strong and effective regulation at national level to ensure proper implementation.

I am happy to hear that Germany will most probably adopt its Energiewirtschaftsgesetz (EnWG) before the summer break – irrespectively of the political events following the elections in Nordrhein-Westfahlen.

Competition will allow EU citizens to benefit of the freedom of choice between the different suppliers and spread the benefits of competition which are already experienced by larger commercial customers.

So, will further Community legislation be necessary? The answer to this question is that it is too early to say. Much depends, of course, on how the Directives are implemented in practice both at government and company level, particularly regarding unbundling.

As you will know the Commission will, at the end of 2005, issue a report which will examine progress to date in constructing the internal market for electricity and gas. This will be an important milestone since it will reflect around five years experience with competitive markets and set the scene for opening of the market to all customers in July 2007. Such an opportunity to take stock will allow us to examine again the balance between national and European measures.

Commissioner Kroes will propose to the Commission, next week, to launch a sectoral enquiry in order to complement this assessment both in terms of the sufficiency of the Community internal market energy directives and from the point of view of the behaviour of the economic actors under Competition Law.

There is, therefore, no shortage of activity at European level to address the ongoing issues in the electricity and gas markets. We also expect Member States to play their role, particularly the national energy regulators and competition authorities.

It is not my intention at this stage to draw definitive conclusions on any additional legislative measures that might need to be taken. The reports should be the basis of a detailed, wide-ranging debate, enabling us to draw conclusions later in 2006.

Research

In addition, I wish to create a better linkage between energy policies and environmental and research policies. With this in mind there will be an increased budget for the 7th Framework Programme, with large-impact projects; a strengthened Intelligent Energy programme as part of the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme. The EU already has a lead in climate and energy technologies and this should be reinforced.

Research and technology can surely help develop a more sustainable energy future for example through “clean coal” technologies like carbon sequestration, but also fuel cells, hydrogen and bio-fuels.

It is important in terms of security and diversity of supplies that coal retains an important position in Europe’s energy mix. I would therefore like to propose that during this Commission, we work together to develop a coherent and ambitious European Clean Coal Partnership, between the Commission, Member States and industry.

Nuclear safety

Finally, I am underlining the need to strengthened nuclear safety and security. A key component of this is the nuclear package, which seeks to ensure safe disposal of radio-active materials. Where nuclear energy does form a component of any Member States’ energy portfolio, it is crucial that it does so in a totally safe and secure manner.

I did say that our action in the supply side is limited. Still we need to strengthen the EU external energy relations with our major partners both producers and consumers. The EU will continue to deepen its bilateral cooperation with the main producer countries on which it depends, notably through the dialogue with Russia and through relations with the countries of the Caspian Basin, of the Mediterranean as well as with Norway. A new political dialogue with OPEC is being launched and the first ministerial meeting will take place on 9 June. As the Commission has always stressed, a dialogue is necessary both when prices are high as well as when they are low.

In order to diversify the oil and gas supply networks, the European Union is also currently reinforcing its cooperation with key transit countries, such as Ukraine. Furthermore, a South East Europe Energy Community has been agreed.

It goes without saying that the discussions between the EU and the main energy consuming countries (United States, Japan, China, and India) will also be enhanced.

We also need to improve data transparency and accuracy on the oil markets including stocks in order to reduce speculation and price volatility.

Conclusion

Having outlined my priorities for the future EU energy policy and aiming at security of supply, a competitive market and sustainable development, it becomes clear that we need to have a balanced energy mix with full use of available energy sources.

We all want functioning sustainable markets that will deliver what customers want – a stable and reliable supply with clear signals about the real costs of energy use both direct and indirect. The Commission is committed to these objectives and will take whatever measures are necessary to help deliver the required results.

I hope, with these remarks, I have set out something of the Commission’s philosophy on the balance to be struck between national and Community action. However we should not delude ourselves that there is any single right answer to this question.

As I stressed at the beginning of my speech, it is only by ongoing dialogue and consultation, and aiming at a coherent energy policy, that we will arrive at the optimal policy framework.

Thank you for your attention.

Zum Kalender hinzufügen

Veranstaltungsort

Europabüro der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Avenue de L´Yser 11, 1040 Brüssel

Referenten

  • Herrn Andris Piebalgs
    • Mitglied der Europäischen Kommission (Energie)
      Kontakt

      Dr. Peter R. Weilemann †

      „Challenges for the European Energy Policy of the next years“

      Bereitgestellt von

      Europabüro Brüssel