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Short political reports of the KAS offices abroad

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KAS / Ellinor Zeino

Islamist Terrorism After The Taliban Takeover

Impacts on Afghanistan and its region

With the Taliban taking power in August 2021, the withdrawal of foreign forces and the flight of the Ghani government abroad, decades of war in Afghanistan came to an end. However, terrorist attacks by jihadist groups, especially the local branch of the Islamic State, ISKP, are steadily increasing. At the same time, the humanitarian, economic and political situation has deteriorated significantly, leaving the Afghan people in a state of insecurity and hopelessness.

Reuters / Inquam Photos

Romania is getting well through the winter. But what else is going on in the energy policy?

At first glance, Romania is a model student in terms of energy policy compared with other EU countries, but there are also shortcomings.

Low dependence on Russian gas, full natural gas storage facilities, balanced energy mix in production. At first glance, Romania is a model pupil in terms of energy policy compared to the EU and can easily bridge this difficult winter in terms of energy. But there are also deficits. Above all, there is a strong need to expand the electricity supply. If new investments are not made or progress is too slow, the situation in Romania can quickly deteriorate.

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V.

Inklusive Arbeitsmarkt-, Bildungs- und Gesundheitspolitik in Brasilien?

Inklusion weltweit – Aktueller Stand aus Brasilien

Brasilien hat es sich zum Ziel gesetzt, Menschen mit Behinderung in das gesellschaftliche Leben zu integrieren und ihren Rechtsansprüchen gerecht zu werden. Quotenregelungen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt, bauliche Maßnahmen in öffentlichen Gebäuden und im Personennahverkehr, Einsatz von Gebärdensprache, universeller Zugang zum Gesundheitssystem sowie die Ratifizierung der Übereinkunft der Vereinten Nationen über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung sind Beispiele hierfür. Zudem hat sich Brasilien auch der Agenda 2030 verpflichtet. Damit einher geht das Ziel, soziale Ungleichheiten zu verringern und die Inklusion zu fördern.

Blair Gable / Reuters

The Canadians look ahead with mixed feelings

Economic and social issues dominate the demoscopic picture at the start of 2023 - and Prime Minister Trudeau gets poor marks

Traditionally, the relevant Canadian polling institutes present the results of their most important, latest surveys at the beginning of the year. They serve as a barometer of the population's mood on key issues for the coming twelve months. At the beginning of 2023, probably the most important finding from the wealth of data is that Canadians feel that they and their country are in a permanent crisis. The reasons for this are manifold and have both geopolitical and domestic political backgrounds. Politicians seem to have failed so far to effectively counter the pessimistic trend, neither through people nor through policy designs. However, the survey results also contain some paradoxes.

Reuters / Yara Nardi

Giorgia Meloni's wondrous transformation

There was no lack of dire prophecies when the Fratelli d'Italia under Giorgia Meloni, which emerged from neo-fascist movements, clearly won the parliamentary elections on 25 September 2022. But in the first 100 days since taking office, the new right-wing government has been emphatically moderate. Not a few had expected Prime Minister Meloni to slip at the first opportunity on the international stage. But it is not only her outward appearance that has become very smooth. Thematically, she never misses an opportunity to make a clear commitment to Italy's obligations in NATO and the EU. On the subject of Ukraine, Rome is in the front line. And the scandal with France over the landing of refugee ships remained a single anti-European uproar. Without any ambiguity, Meloni has clearly distanced herself from the neo-fascist roots of her party on several occasions and has condemned Mussolini's racial laws, which led to the deportation of Jewish Italians to the extermination camps from 1943 onwards. In opinion polls, the Fratelli d'Italia are currently at 30-32 per cent. And more and more observers are wondering whether Meloni wants to move her hitherto strictly nationalist party to the centre-right in order to lead a new conservative party in Italy in the future.

Unsplash / Jorge Aguilar

Mexico Forecast 2023

Old and new challenges for democracy

An electoral reform that is questionable for Mexican democracy, corruption and plagiarism scandals as well as personnel renewal within the Supreme Court, the continuing attacks against the National Electoral Institute and the last regional elections before the presidential elections in 2024: The start of the new year is rich in events that will shape the country's future in one way or another. What remains unchanged this year is a very polarized mood in Mexican society and an economic situation marked by strong inflation and continued economic weakness, which is not expected to return to pre-pandemic levels before 2026, according to forecasts. Internal security also remains characterized by historically high murder rates, a worrisome presence of organized crime and an increasingly visible militarization of the country. In terms of foreign policy, relations with the United States continue to take center stage; in the south of the continent, Mexico has abandoned its traditional position of non-interference, at least in the case of Peru, and has caused considerable irritation.

REUTERS/Amanda Perobelli 

Terror threatens Brazil's democracy, but it resists

Extremist riots against the country's democratic institutions overshadow a week-long honeymoon after the inauguration of President Lula da Silva

After the peaceful inauguration of President Luiz Inácio "Lula" da Silva (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) on 01 January 2023, the "return to democracy" was overshadowed by violent terrorist attacks on Brazil's democratic institutions. However, even though the buildings and installations have been vandalised by extremists, their functioning has so far remained unaffected. Lula now faces the challenge of continuing to guarantee public security, overcoming polarisation, targeting extremism and implementing his government plans despite the minority in Congress and budget constraints. In this, the international community is backing him. But even though many embraced him joyfully after his inauguration, relieved about the change of government, one has to ask whether the enthusiasm still lasts when it comes to topics such as Ukraine or the EU-Mercosul agreement.

REUTERS / Irakli Gedenidze

Escape from Russia

The Russian war of aggression on Ukraine is also a turning point in Russia, as more and more people are leaving the country.

The 24th of February 2022 also marks a turning point in Russian society. Over one million people may have already left the country. The exodus movements have different characteristics and can be divided into different groups. The waves of emigration from Russia pose fundamental questions for European states about how to deal with Russian conscientious objectors. In other parts of the world, such as Central Asia, the waves of emigrants are initially raising economic hopes. Contrary to fears, Russia has not (yet) closed its borders. As a rule, citizens are still able to leave the country. In the current situation, the Russian government seems to see an advantage in critical voices and protest potential leaving Russia. The tone for dealing with exiles is set by former President Dmitry Medvedev, Putin's deputy on the National Security Council: "Traitors who hate their country so much that they call for its defeat must be considered enemies of the state. (...) Such people should not be allowed to return to Russia for the rest of their lives. (...) Their return home can only take place in the case of clear public repentance and through amnesty or pardon. Although it would be better for them not to return."

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V.

Inklusion von Menschen mit Behinderungen im koreanischen Bildungssystem

Inklusion weltweit – aktueller Stand aus Korea

Aktuell sind in Südkorea mehr als 2.6 Millionen Menschen mit Behinderungen registriert, was insgesamt 5 Prozent der Bevölkerung ausmacht. Darunter wurden im Jahr 2021 über 98.000 Schülerinnen und Schüler für Sonderförderung registriert. Die koreanische Regierung fördert zwar den Zugang zu verschiedensten Bildungseinrichtungen, trotzdem sind junge koreanische Menschen mit Behinderungen beim Zugang zu gerechter, diskriminierungsfreier und fairer Schulbildung oft mit erheblichen Herausforderungen konfrontiert. Exklusion, Separation, Integration und Inklusion bilden nach UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention die vier Kernkategorien, die es im Zusammenhang mit einem einbeziehenden Bildungssystem zu berücksichtigen gilt. Der Ansatz in Korea fokussiert sich im Bereich der Bildung zwischen Separation, dem Unterricht in Sonderschulen und Klassen, und Integration, dem gemeinsamen Unterricht in regulären Klassen. Eine klare Definition von inklusiver Bildung existiert in Korea im rechtlichen Kontext derzeit nicht, vielmehr wird der Begriff Inklusion mit dem der Integration gleichgesetzt.

D. Myles Cullen

Zeit für Neues in Venezuela

Opposition beendet Interimsregierung um Juan Guaidó

Am 30. Dezember 2022 beschloss die Nationalversammlung Venezuelas von 2015, laut eigenem Verständnis weiterhin das legitime Parlament, die Beendigung der Interimsregierung um Juan Guaidó. Mit Abschaffung der fast vierjährigen Interimsregierung trägt die Opposition den mangelnden Erfolgen dieses Instruments sowie den geänderten Realitäten im In- und Ausland Rechnung und geht in eine neue Etappe. Das Bündnis Plataforma Unitaria (Einheitsplattform), die Vertretung der Opposition im sogenannten Mexiko-Dialog mit der Regierung, und weitere oppositionelle Kräfte gewinnen nach Ende der Interimspräsidentschaft an Bedeutung. Für die Opposition gilt es, im Mexiko-Dialog neben Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der humanitären Lage die bestmöglichen Bedingungen für die Präsidentschaftswahlen im Jahr 2024 auszuhandeln.

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The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung is a political foundation. Our offices abroad are in charge of over 200 projects in more than 120 countries. The country reports offer current analyses, exclusive evaluations, background information and forecasts - provided by our international staff.

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