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Country Reports

Short political reports of the KAS offices abroad


IMAGO / Hoch Zwei Stock/Angerer

Demographic Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Consequences of the Significant Decrease and Aging of the Population

The shrinking population is not a novelty in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Political and economic shortcomings are the main reasons driving emigration, especially of qualified workforce. The Bosnian-Herzegovinian diaspora (citizens living abroad) is proportionally one of the largest in the world. Additionally, an aging population due to declining birth rates is a growing concern. These two factors together have led to an estimated decline in the population by an average of 25,000 people per year during the period 2013 - 2020. The last census in 2013 counted around 3.5 million residents. Projections suggest a 55% population decline by 2070. The remaining approximately 1.56 million people are likely to face a drastically changed societal structure. This poses significant challenges to the labor market and social systems, particularly the pension, healthcare, and education systems. Addressing these challenges effectively requires sustained political will over an extended period to secure Bosnia and Herzegovina's future in the face of the expected drastic demographic changes. Initial steps in this direction have been taken, and more are planned. However, successful mitigation of the challenges of demographic change requires both the implementation of planned measures and the adoption of additional far-reaching actions.

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V.

Digital Solutions for better Inclusion in Romania

Inclusion worldwide – current status from Romania

In 2010, Romania ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The purpose of the Convention is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities and to promote respect for their inherent dignity. Unfortunately, inclusion of persons with disabilities is not yet a reality in Romania. Accessibility in everyday life, participation of children with disabilities in school, integration of disabled people in the labour market, efficient medical, nursing and care support, etc.: Wherever you look, there are serious deficits in Romania. But there are also people who are taking action and looking for solutions. Also digital solutions.

UN Photo / Jean-Marc Ferré

Geneva Barometer

Developments among Geneva-based international organisations from end-April to mid-July 2023

The ‘Geneva Barometer’ takes an occasional look at selected developments among international organizations based in Geneva.

IMAGO / Xinhua

Beijing Reactions to Germany's China Strategy

China's moderate response

Chinese officials and the state media have reacted with deliberate calm to the German government's new China strategy, which Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock presented last Thursday, July 13. Behind China's restraint is also the political calculation to calm things down so as not to endanger German investments in China.

Adobe Stock / VanderWolf Images

Potentials of an Algerian-German Energy Partnership

Globale Energieengpässe als Machtinstrument

Algeria has resources and geographical conditions that make it an interesting energy partner for Europe. As a net exporter of electricity and a supplier of fossil fuels, Algeria could close supply gaps, and the country also has great potential in the field of renewable energies. Nevertheless, Algeria faces economic and implementation problems, and cooperation with Germany could be intensified.

Adobe Stock / TTstudio

Iraq as an energy partner?

Global energy shortages as an instrument of power

Since the beginning of the Russian war of aggression on Ukraine, Germany has been looking for ways to diversify its energy imports. Iraq has extensive resources in fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas. So far, however, ties between Berlin and Baghdad in the energy sector have been weak - a circumstance that is unlikely to change in the near future. Nevertheless, Germany should work for a stronger partnership with the country in this area.

Adobe Stock / tum2282

Global Energy Markets and a Strategic Shift in the Gulf

Global energy shortages as an instrument of power

Since Russia's attack on Ukraine on February 24, 2022, the oil- and gas-rich Gulf states have been among the biggest beneficiaries of the global energy shortages caused by the halt in Russian oil and gas supplies to most Western countries. In the absence of alternative producers, the Gulf states have come back into focus as strategically important energy exporters. This has not only increased the geopolitical relevance of the oil and gas suppliers of the Arabian Peninsula, it has also provided them with considerable profits due to exploding energy prices and thus strengthened the financial influence of the Gulf states.


It's boiling in the Himalayas

Germany's turnaround must now lead to enhanced security cooperation with India

A battle between the world's two most populous states is looming on the border between India and China: at the end of 2022, a violent confrontation once again occurred between the two nuclear powers. The consequences of this conflict could be more far-reaching than German politicians have suspected so far. In any case, Germany started late in considering the Indo-Pacific as a security-relevant region. But instead of now consistently applying the conclusions of the turn of the times to India - especially against the backdrop of the Ukraine war - it remains mostly with declarations of friendship.


Israel Between Uproar and Paralysis

A part of the controversial judicial reform has been approved by the Israeli parliament following the first reading

In the early hours of Tuesday, 11 July 2023, a part of the controversial judicial reform – the Reasonableness Standard Bill” – has been approved after its first reading at the Knesset. Supporters of the now-initiated bill are hopeful that this will end what they deem an unjustified and undemocratic interference of the Supreme Court in government decisions. Critics, however, consider this step a threat to the separation of powers. Protests erupted inside and outside the Knesset as a result of the first reading of the bill. It should be noted that the demonstrations against the policies of the government, especially the judicial reform, now continue into their 27th week. A vibrant civil society consisting of different societal sector and political streams has been taking to the streets every single week since the beginning of this year to peacefully demonstrate for democratic values. Over the course of the past few weeks, these protests have been taking on a new dimension in the form of substantial road blocks and with tyres being burned. The response of the security forces, on the other hand, is growing increasingly firm. However, the protests shed light on other aspects as well. While the judicial reform might be a primary factor, these events also indicate the extent to which Israeli society is divided.


Clear path for Mirsiyoyev

The course set by the early presidential elections in Uzbekistan on July 9, 2023

Uzbek President Shavkat Mirsiyoyev has won the presidential elections in his country with a result of 87 per cent. These were early elections, which at the same time "annulled" the previous presidential terms. Mirsiyoyev could now theoretically run for another term as head of state in 2030. He has been in power in the Central Asian country since the death of the authoritarian long-term President Islam Karimov in 2017 and has opened Uzbekistan up to reforms.

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About this series

The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung is a political foundation. Our offices abroad are in charge of over 200 projects in more than 120 countries. The country reports offer current analyses, exclusive evaluations, background information and forecasts - provided by our international staff.

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