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Cambodia v. Hackers: Balancing Security and Liberty in Cybercrime Law

Somaly Nguon & Sopheak Srun

Cybercrime is a well-known, yet poorly understood issue in Cambodia, and the country’s existing legal framework is vague and unclear compared to international standards. Government websites have been subject to cyberattacks since 2002. Targets have included those of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the National Election Committee, the National Police, the military and the Supreme Court; thousands of official documents were leaked online by the hacktivist collective “Anonymous”. There are also reports of malicious local hackers, but most go unnoticed and unpunished. As a developing country, Cambodia lacks good technology practices and legislation because of poverty, poor infrastructure, weak institutions, low literacy and low ICT awareness. This paper outlines the cybersecurity threats it faces and analyzes existing legal measures such as the Criminal Code and the new draft Cybercrime Law, also looking at how these laws could be interpreted too broadly and thereby potentially restrict fundamental rights. Cybersecurity practices in China, Japan and Singapore are briefly explored, followed by recommendations on making cybersecurity law in Cambodia more robust, specific and proportionate, in line with international treaties like the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime.

Do Cambodians Trust E-Government Services? A Survey

Sereyvisith Sokhan , Chandary Raing & Channara Rin

Lack of user trust is a major reason why e-government projects fail. To align efforts for the successful implementation of e-government in Cambodia, the government focuses on platform development, integration between government agencies and other technical considerations. However, there is no proper discussion about how to enhance citizen trust in e-government services. This study explores user perceptions and trust around e-government in Cambodia by surveying 256 participants recruited through online platforms. The result of this study indicates that among well-educated and regular internet users in Cambodia, the knowledge of e-government is significantly low and that most are still neutral about whether it can be trusted or not. We have suggested several methods and approaches the government could consider in order to boost citizens’ knowledge and trust, which in turn could potentially influence user adoption of e-government.

E-Government: What Can Cambodia Learn From E-Estonia?

Sun Kim and Dr. Raimund Weiß

Estonia is an EU country where ‘99% of the public services are available online 24/7’ . This article aims to analyse whether Cambodia can develop its own e-government by learning from the Estonian model. To achieve this, the paper first defines and clarifies some key terminologies and phrases vis-à-vis e-government and e-governance. Second, the history of e-Estonia is outlined and its innovations for e-government examined. This includes among others e-cabinet, e-public services and e-democracy. After discussing the development of e-Estonia, the study moves to exploring the digital transformation of Cambodia and explaining the evolution of its e-government. The article also summarises what Cambodia has done already and what it hasn’t, including achievements and challenges in terms of digital infrastructure and digital human capital (digital literacy, skills, knowledge and experiences). The study concludes that Cambodia is undergoing a digital transformation towards e-government. And despite significant differences to the development path of Estonia, it can learn from e-Estonia because both countries share a common vision, that is, utilizing digital technologies to improve government-society relations.

The Risks of Industry 4.0 on Cambodia's Garment Sector

Dr. Daniel Schmücking

There are major innovations in the global economy which could change the face of industrial production forever. A term that embodies multiple new technologies in manufacturing is Industry 4.0. Highly developed countries have the necessary monetary, intellectual and industrial resources to embrace and shape this change, unlike developing countries which are still catching up economically. This is especially true when an economy is highly dependent on just one sector and its low labor costs, as is the case with Cambodia and its garment industry. The impact of digitalization on manufacturing will be significant. Low-skilled jobs could disappear on a large scale and there will be an urge to restructure. To get a better understanding of Cambodia’s economy, this report asks the question: What impact does Industry 4.0 have on the garment sector in Cambodia? The first chapter will focus on global trends in manufacturing which are often described by the term Industry 4.0 and their impact on the garment sector. Afterwards, the report analyzes the risks stemming from these developments on the Cambodian economy in general and on the garment industry in particular, before finally finding and presenting approaches that policymakers could take in order to attain the most positive outcome for Cambodia.

Decide on Europe

Wie arbeiten und entscheiden die europäischen Institutionen?

70 Schülerinnen und Schüler aus Gymnasien in Tschechien und der Slowakei haben im Rahmen eines fünftägigen Workshops die Arbeitsweise der europäischen Institutionen praxisnah kennen gelernt.

European Council President / flickr/ CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

„Too small to fail“?

Gambias Demokratisierungsprozess – zwischen Fortschritt und Frustration

Seit Herbst 2019 demonstrieren Tausende junge Gambier gegen Präsident Adama Barrow, da sie sich von ihrem einstigen Hoffnungsträger hintergangen fühlen. Die unter dem Namen „3 years jotna“ („drei Jahre sind genug“) agierende Bewegung forderte die Abhaltung von Wahlen im Dezember 2019. Am 26. Januar 2020 eskalierte der Protest gegen die Regierung Barrow erstmals gewaltsam. Bei einer Demonstration wurden Anhänger der „3 years jotna“-Bewegung zum Teil schwer verletzt. Die Polizei ging mit Tränengas und Schlägen gegen die Demonstranten vor, die ihrerseits mit Steinen auf Polizisten warfen und Autoreifen anzündeten. Die Regierung soll unter anderem auch Journalisten inhaftiert haben, die im Umfeld der Bewegung agieren. Der tragische Vorfall zeigt, wie angespannt die innenpolitische Lage in Gambia ist und wie notwendig rasche Fortschritte der Sicherheitssektorreform wären.

A Judgement Is Important – Enforcement Even More So!

A Comparison of Regional Human Rights Courts

International human rights protection has gained in importance over the last sixty years. The primary indicator of this development is the submission of states to the judgements of international human rights courts. However, the mere existence of these courts does not guarantee success. People can assert their rights only when judgements are properly and completely carried out. The following article illuminates the various mechanisms for implementing and enforcing judgements of the three existing international human rights courts.

Fast and Furious: China's rise in the Middle East and North Africa

Traditionally, China has pursued a relatively restrained foreign policy in the Middle East and North Africa. This has changed dramatically in recent years. Within a few years the country has positioned itself as a new global power in the region. On the one hand, this is due to China's interest in securing access to energy and resources, expanding trade routes and opening up markets for its own export products. But there's more to it than that. President Xi Jinping's declared goal is to make China the world's number one power by 2049 - the centenary of the People's Republic.

La Unión democráta-cristiana alemana exige más presión a la crisis en Venezuela

Artículo publicado en medio de comunicación Der Tagesspiegel por los diputados Andreas Nick, Jürgen Hardt und Peter Weiß.

La región frente a los cambios globales en materia de Seguridad

Policy Paper del libro "La región frente a los cambios globales en materia de seguridad" de la Red de Política de Seguridad

Policy Paper editado por el Instituto de Estudios Internacionales (IDEI) de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y la Fundación Konrad Adenauer (KAS) en el Perú.

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Facts and Findings

Selected contributions to the series with international relevance

The series informs in a concentrated form about important positions of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung on current topics. The individual issues present key findings and recommendations, offer brief analyses, explain the Foundation's further plans and name KAS contact persons.

 

International Reports

Journal for international issues, foreign policy and development cooperation

International Reports (IR) is the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung's periodical on international politics. It offers political analyses by our experts in Berlin and from more than 100 offices across all regions of the world. Contributions by named authors do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editorial team.

EPP Party Barometer

The Situation of the European People's Party in the EU

The EPP Party Barometer illustrates the current situation of the EPP party family in the EU. On a non-regular basis, it provides a concise overview of current election results, polls from the member states and the composition of the party family.

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In our series "Interviews", talks and discussions are held with experts from the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V. on various topics.

kurzum

Concise, reduced to the essentials, but always highly topical. In our series "kurzum", our experts summarise an issue or problem on a maximum of two pages.

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Short political reports of the KAS offices abroad

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The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, its educational institutions, centres and foreign offices, offer several thousand events on various subjects each year. We provide up to date and exclusive reports on selected conferences, events and symposia at www.kas.de. In addition to a summary of the contents, you can also find additional material such as pictures, speeches, videos or audio clips.