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Malaysia’s Interests in the IPEF: Managing Trade Frictions and Restoring Market Access

To re-engage economically with the Indo-Pacific region, United States (US) President Biden launched the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) in May 2022. For Malaysia, the IPEF could help restore market access to the US by relaxing Withhold Release Orders (WROs) that ban exports of companies facing forced labour allegations. Malaysia also expects that the ease and frequency with which trade sanctions are applied in the future will be better managed as a result of the IPEF.

IPEF: An Indian Perspective

This paper reflects on what the IPEF means for India. The structure of the paper is as follows: the first part traces the principal drivers for engagement in the IPEF, both from the United States (US) and the Indian perspectives; the second part identifies some of the key challenges for negotiation, anticipated outcomes as well as implementation challenges for India across its four Pillars, while dwelling deeper into the Supply Chain Pillar, which has seen substantial conclusion; the third part is the concluding section for assessing the future evolution of the IPEF.

Indo-Pacific Economic Framework: Negotiating and Implementation Challenges for the US

As the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF) negotiations intensify, significant challenges await the United States (US), both in successfully concluding an agreement that achieves US objectives, as well as ensuring successful implementation of the agreement once concluded.

Impact of regional trade agreements on the IPEF

The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF) seeks to establish the United States (US) as the primary rule-setter in the Asia Pacific (APAC), a position it has ceded to China in recent years. The reciprocal benefits for the APAC are not so evident. Many in the region are not keen to choose sides and as a trade pact, it compares poorly with the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).

Japan’s Economic Realism and Approach to Indo-Pacific Engagement, Resilience, and Rule-Setting

This paper examines Japan’s strategic priorities pertaining to the IPEF, their connection to Japan’s relationship with China and the US, and the actions being taken for successful implementation of the IPEF.

Much Ado about Something? Australia’s Views on IPEF’s Prospects

This paper by Peter Draper discusses Australian perspectives on the IPEF’s anticipated outcomes, negotiation challenges and implementation issues.

Perspectives on IPEF from Aotearoa New Zealand

This paper articulates the rationale behind New Zealand’s decision to join the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) based on a study of official documents, publicly available submissions and other printed materials, as well as conversations with a number of experts.

Voluntary Party Quotas: Japan’s Status Quo and Lessons from Germany

Japan has a long lack of female lawmakers. According to the gender gap report released by the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) in June, Japan’s ranking was the lowest ever, 125th out of 146 countries, especially in the political field, where it ranked 138th. In fact, if we look at the percentage of women in parliament: in the first postwar 1946 general election, the ratio of women in the House of Representatives (HR) was 8.4%, and in the most recent 2021 general election, it stood at 9.7%. There has been virtually no increase for around 70 years. Even in the most recent national election, the 2022 House of Councillors election, the ratio of women elected stood at 25.8%.

The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF): Approach, Challenges and Prospects

This introductory chapter, written by Amitendu Palit and Ramita Iyer, serves as an entry point to the IPEF Discussion Paper Series and offers an overview of the IPEF’s approach, challenges, and prospects.

The Great Supply Chain Shift from China to South Asia?

This paper discusses the concept of global supply chains, the industrial rise of East Asia, drivers of supply chain relocation from China, South Asia’s prospects, India as a complementary hub and policy lessons from East Asia’s industrial success. For the purposes of this paper, South Asia is broadly defined as the India and its contiguous countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.