20 Years after Fall of the Berlin Wall

and its relevance for Macedonia and Germany in the 21st century

Why is 1989 still relevant in the 21st century? Implications for International Relations: Creation of a European IdentityWind of Change in the Balkans: dissolution of Yugoslavia and democratic transformation completed?


On November 9, 1989, the East German party functionary Günter Schabowski announced the official “opening” of the Berlin Wall for travel purposes; one day later, on November 10, East Berliners ventured out en masse into West Berlin. As an historic event, the fall of the Wall marked the presumed “end” of the Cold War and “death” of communism. In its wake the world witnessed the dissolution of the USSR; a shift in Soviet policy toward glasnost’ (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring); the so-called Autumn Revolutions of 1989 throughout Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria; the reunification of East and West Germany one year later in 1990; and rapid geopolitical and global capitalist restructuring.

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