Coding a State for the 21st Century

A [very] brief manual by Dr. Mahir Muharemovic

We today perceive the state as given. We live under its rules and assume that it will protect and help us in need. But do we realy understand its code, its essence and functions? A brief but thorough attempt by our colleague, Dr. Mahir Muharemovic, to explain in an easy-to-understand style the complexity of a modern state.

wikimedia/Pudelek/CC BY-SA 4.0

Controversial NGO law passed in the Republic of Moldova

Support of political parties is crucial

On June 11, 2020, the Moldovan parliament passed the new “Law on Non-Governmental Organizations” (NGO law). It quickly became a bone of contention within the government led by the Socialist Party (PSRM). A reform of this law was mentioned as a prerequisite for further macro-financial assistance by the EU. The main innovations concern rules for the support of political parties provided by NGOs. Close to a month after its adoption, the official legal text is still not available, however key elements are known and are briefly presented below.

AGERPRES / Wikimedia / CC BY 3.0

The case of KÖVESI v. ROMANIA

The European Court of Human Rights rules: Kövesi's dismissal as head of the Romanian anti-corruption agency was illegal

The current head of the newly created European Public Prosecutor's Office, Laura Codruța Kövesi, comes from Romania. There, she served as Attorney General for six years and heades the Romanian Anti-Corruption Agency (DNA) from 2013, until she was released in July 2018 in a controversial case and after a decision by the Romanian Constitutional Court. Kövesi appealed to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg against this dismissal. On May 5, 2020, the ECtHR ruled that her release has run against the standards of the European “Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms” (ECHR). In this (particularly in Romania) highly anticipated decision, the Court found that the Romanian state's dismissal of Ms Kövesi had violated her rights to freedom of expression and fair trial as laid down in Article 10 and Article 6 ECHR.

Jennifer Boyer/flickr/CC-BY 2.0

Curfew unconstitutional

Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (more precisely, its entity “Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina” which covers slightly more than half of the country, including its capital Sarajevo) at the beginning of the corona pandemic has imposed one of the strictest curfews in Europe for two groups: minors and elderly people above 65. This curfew has now been subject of a decision by the Bosnian Constitutional Court. The court did not completely annul the measure, but ordered a revision. The imposed curfew is considered to not meet the required proportionality. It is one of the first Constitutional Court decisions on the legality of emergency measures imposed during the Corona crisis. Other Constitutional Courts in South East European countries are also expected to take decisions soon.


Debatte um das Religionsgesetz in Montenegro

Gesetz über die Religions- und Glaubensfreiheit sowie die rechtliche Stellung religiöser Gemeinschaften

Anfang Januar dieses Jahres trat in Montenegro das kontrovers diskutierte „Gesetz über die Religions- und Glaubensfreiheit sowie die rechtliche Stellung religiöser Gemeinschaften“ (Gesetz über die Religionsfreiheit) begleitet von tumultartigen Szenen im montenegrinischen Parlament – am Ende befanden sich 18 Abgeordnete in Haft – und Protesten Zehntausender auf den Straßen in Kraft.


Bosnia and Herzegovina: Publication of the ''Priebe'' Report

A critical review of the report on the situation regarding rule of law in the judiciary of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The so-called ''Priebe'' Report, which had been eagerly expected by both the public at large and the judiciary of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was published on December 05, 2019 in Brussels. The report was compiled by several EU experts under the leadership of Reinhard Priebe (a German lawyer and a long-time employee of the EU Commission) ''in relation to rule of law issues in Bosnia and Herzegovina''. As expected, the report is critical, but it lacks concrete recommendations for action or reform steps.

wikimedia/Mihai Petre

Ex-Präsident Ion Iliescu vor Gericht: Revolutionär oder Verbrecher?

„Unantastbarkeit der Machtfiguren und ein totaler Skeptizismus, was Gerechtigkeit betrifft, ist Teil der kollektiven Überzeugungen in diesem Land, […]“. Insoweit mag vielleicht das Ende November 2019 eröffnete Gerichtsverfahren gegen Ion Iliescu überraschen. Iliescu war von Dezember 1989 bis 1996 sowie von 2000 bis 2004 der Präsident Rumäniens und steht jetzt vor Gericht. Vorgeworfen wird ihm, im Rahmen der „rumänischen Revolution“ 1989 Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit begangen zu haben. Die Bedeutung des Verfahrens für Rumänien kann kaum überschätzt werden: Nicht nur aus Gründen der Gerechtigkeit für die zahlreichen Opfer der Revolution, sondern auch, weil das Gericht über die Geschichte zu befinden hat. Bis zum heutigen Tag ist umstritten, ob es sich bei den Ereignissen vom Dezember 1989, während der über 1100 Menschen in Rumänien ums Leben kamen, tatsächlich um eine Revolution oder nicht vielmehr um einen geschickt ausgeführten Staatsstreich gehandelt habe.

Guide: Article 6 European Convention of Human Rights (Bosnian)

The guide is a good tool for legal practitioners, especially judges and lawyers, to quickly familiarize themselves with the latest case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The aim is to strengthen the rule of law by raising awareness of the importance of the right to a fair trial.

Nip it in the bud!

The EU Commission Strengthens the Rule of Law

In the European Union, the “Instruments of the Rule of Law” will become even more important in the future. There is a plan underway to publish an annual report on the Rule of Law to reflect the situation in all Member States. The declared aim is to take action much earlier than in the past – meaning, that action should already be taken in the process of promoting an awareness of the Rule of Law.

Dennis Jarvis / flickr / CC BY-SA 2.0

Strafrechtsreform Rumänien

Momentaufnahme kurz vor Ende der EU-Ratspräsidentschaft

Seit einigen Monaten gerät die rumänische Justizreform wieder verstärkt in den Fokus europäischer Politik. Dieser Trend lässt sich insbesondere bei der Betrachtung der (internationalen) Medienlandschaft feststellen. Dies dürfte der rumänischen EU-Ratspräsidentschaft geschuldet sein, welche das Land in der ersten Jahreshälfte 2019 innehat, vor allem aber einer sich verschärfenden Auseinandersetzung um die Unabhängigkeit der Justiz. Rumänien scheint neben Polen und Ungarn als dritter Mitgliedsstaat der Europäischen Union vor einem Rechtsstaatsverfahren zu stehen. Auslöser dafür ist eine umfassende Strafrechtsreform, welche im April dieses Jahres das rumänische Parlament passiert hat.

Country Reports

Short political reports of the KAS offices abroad

The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung is a political foundation. Our offices abroad are in charge of over 200 projects in more than 120 countries. The country reports offer current analyses, exclusive evaluations, background information and forecasts - provided by our international staff.

Event Reports

The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, its educational institutions, centres and foreign offices, offer several thousand events on various subjects each year. We provide up to date and exclusive reports on selected conferences, events and symposia at In addition to a summary of the contents, you can also find additional material such as pictures, speeches, videos or audio clips.

Press Review

On a monthly basis the Rule of Law Programme South East Europe publishes a press review collecting selected articles and reports from newspapers and news portals in English and German. Giving our readers an overview over the most important developments, we focus on news reports in the areas of democracy and the rule of law. The press review covers the following ten countries, where we also implement our activities: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Romania and Serbia.

Translation of Federal Constitutional Court decisions

In order to strengthen the institutional and judicial cooperation between Germany and the countries of South East Europe, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung considers translations of landmark decision of the Federal Constitutional Court as an important step in the realm of preserving fundamental rights and liberties, safeguarding the constitutional order and applying the rule of law. All decision so far translated can be accessed in several official languages of the countries of South East Europe (PDF file and EPUB).