Publications

Mekong Connect: Sustainable Development in the Mekong Region

Various Authors

This publication brings together authors who share common interest in environmental issues and socio-economic development to explore and develop thoughts, ideas, and knowledge about current and relevant topics related to the Mekong River and the communities whose livelihoods are based on the river. The topics range from analysing potential risks that are currently presented such as the construction of hydro-dams and climate change to discussing sustainable development frameworks for communities in Mekong riparian countries such as Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Cambodia 2040 Culture and Society

Since the signing of Paris Peace Accords in 1991, Cambodia has seen a rapid development in many fields, including technology. For instance, we can see that many Cambodians start to use smartphones while many shops and institutions have offered public WIFI to customers and visitors. It is undeniable that technology will have an impact on every part of our lives. Continuing from our previous volume which focuses on economic development, we would like to shift your attention to discover our insightful authors’ visions on how technology could influence various aspects of our culture and society ranging from healthcare, to education, and to gender equality; in the next twenty years.

Cambodian Identity, Culture, and Legacy

The article is part of the book series Cambodia 2040, which is published by Future Forum and Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Cambodia. Enjoy the read!

The current state of youth identity in Cambodia is less affected by the country’s violent history than their parents’ generation. Young Cambodians today are considered to be politically active and engaged. This group, born between 1986 and 2001, dominate a large part of the population representing 50 per cent of the entire country (Pen, Hok & Eng, 2007). Socio-economic transformation has significantly influenced the dynamic of youth through: urbanization, better education, internet access and information literacy, labour migration and social fragmentation (Pen et al., 2017). It is plausible to argue that these factors expose Cambodian youth to new ideas and values, technology and diverse economic opportunity. These experiences influence their expectation and aspiration.

Cashless Cambodia

The article is part of the book series Cambodia 2040, which is published by Future Forum and Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Cambodia. Enjoy the read!

Broader financial inclusion enabled by digital technologies particularly benefit disadvantaged segments of society. Digital payments and e- commerce make it possible for women in China to start businesses and sell products from home, resulting in half of all online enterprises being women- owned, a higher proportion than their offline counterparts (Luohan Academy, 2019, p. 4).

Education: Inclusivity, STEM, and Smart Design

The article is part of the book series Cambodia 2040, which is published by Future Forum and Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Cambodia. Enjoy the read!

As Cambodia embraces the Fourth Industrial Revolution (also known as Industry 4.0), a basic knowledge of digital literacy and ICT is essential for Cambodia to keep up with its ASEAN neighbours. On top of the raised qualifications for teachers and their increased competency, basics skills in digital literacy and ICT, such as the use of digital devices, social media platforms, and digital security, are important skills for educators to acquire in order to maximize their teaching proficiency as well as the learning journey for students.

Education: Pedagogy and Infrastructure

The article is part of the book series Cambodia 2040, which is published by Future Forum and Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Cambodia. Enjoy the read!

The ideal scenario is that by 2040, Cambodia’s Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports (MoEYS) will have fully integrated digital education platforms and affordable technologies to supplement the traditional education system. For more than 150 years, society has demanded students physically go to school. With disruptive technology and the rise of digital education, this may no longer necessarily be the case in the near future (Thomas Arnett, 2016, in Jukes & Schaaf, 2019).

Food

The article is part of the book series Cambodia 2040, which is published by Future Forum and Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Cambodia. Enjoy the read!

Agriculture and food have not only been the main drivers of the kingdom’s economy, but they are also a way of life for Cambodians and will likely continue to shape and affect them. These sectors have helped promote economic growth, reduce poverty, and ensure national food security (WorldBank, 2019).

Gender Equality and Sexual Reproductive Health

The article is part of the book series Cambodia 2040, which is published by Future Forum and Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Cambodia. Enjoy the read!

Having access to quality sexual and reproductive right can be the difference between a life spent in poverty and an empowering life; especially when it concerns young girls and teen pregnancy Social change, like any other kind of change is driven by the desire of the human population and how they navigate their lives while fulfilling their basic needs on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as best as they can in the time that they are given to adapt and evolve. Having over 50 per cent of the population being under the age of 24, the future of Cambodia looks bright and full of possibilities. “Only in societies where men and women have equal rights and responsibilities will reproductive rights be equally shared by all.” (UNFPA, 2014).

Health

The article is part of the book series Cambodia 2040, which is published by Future Forum and Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Cambodia. Enjoy the read!

Over the past two decades, an increasing number of low-income and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, India, Mexico, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand, have started implementing programs to provide Universal Healthcare (Fried et al., 2013). Countries have different approaches to finance their healthcare system. Regardless, the common means to increase government public expenditure on the healthcare sector. As depicted by the World Bank’s data from 2010 to 2016, countries in Southeast Asia have raised public government expenditure in recent years. Cambodia, Lao, and Myanmar, however, remain at the bottom with domestic general government health expenditure below 1.5 percent of GDP.

Introduction

Cambodia has experienced drastic changes since the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in 1991. Twenty-five years later, Cambodia is a lower middle- income country with consistently high GDP growth rates and concomitant improvements in human security as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). The question that Cambodia confronts today is a seemingly simple one, but which is in fact remarkably complex: Whither Cambodia? From energy to industrialization to agriculture, how are the diverse sectors of Cambodian society and the Cambodian economy likely to develop over the next two decades.