Publications

Country Reports

Mid-term Elections in the Philippines

by Stefan Jost

The mega-elections in the Philippines were also a referendum on President Duterte at the mid-term of his Presidency
At the mid-term of President Rodrigo Duterte's six-year Presidency, mega-elections took place in the Philippines with nearly 20,000 positions at the local, regional and national level to be filled. In general, these elections were considered a referendum on the president who is regarded as a controversial figure mainly by the international community. The election of 12 new senators was of primary importance.
Leo Gonzales / flickr / CC BY 2.0

Country Reports

Mid-Term-Wahlen in den Philippinen

by Stefan Jost

Die Mega-Wahlen in den Philippinen waren auch ein Referendum über Staatspräsdident Duterte zur Mitte seiner Amtszeit
Zur Mitte der sechsjährigen Amtszeit von Staatspräsident Rodrigo Duterte fanden in den Philippinen Megawahlen statt, knapp 20 000 Ämter und Mandate auf kommunaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene waren zu vergeben. Allgemein wurden diese Wahlen als Referendum über den vor allem international umstrittenen Präsidenten angesehen. Von besonderer Bedeutung war die Wahl von 12 neuen Senatoren.

Single title

Entrepreneurial Orientation, Perceived Competitive Threat, and Competitive Strategy among SMEs in an Emerging-Economy Capital

Entrepreneurial business owners and managers take risks, innovate, and compete aggressively. We use logistic regression to investigate the impact of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and perceived threat of new competition on three competitive strategies – cost reduction, marketing, and product innovation – adopted by SMEs in Metro Manila, Philippines. Our findings show entrepreneurial SMEs that perceive competitive threat to be more likely than non entrepreneurial and non-threatened SMEs to pursue all three competitive strategies. Market power and predatory players also impact competitive strategy. Our results underscore the importance of a stable and predictable business environment and institutions that foster healthy competition and encourage growth-oriented strategies and innovation among SMEs.

Single title

Five Years of World Talent Report: Some Notes on the Philippines

The International Institute for Management Development (IMD), with the Asian Institute of Management Rizalino S. Navarro Policy Center for Competitiveness (AIM RSN PCC) as its Philippine partner, recently released the 2018 World Talent Report (WTR). This report ranked the Philippines 55th out of 63 countries. The Philippines’ rank has been fairly constant in the five years of the WTR. It also placed 55th in 2014, 57th in 2015, back to 55th in 2016, climbed up to 45th in 2017, and back to 55th again this year.

Single title

Philippines’ Digital Competitiveness Ranking: Some Notes and Implications

Earlier this year, the International Institute for Management Development (IMD), in partnership with the Asian Institute of Management Rizalino S. Navarro Policy Center for Competitiveness (AIM RSN PCC), released the results of the 2018 World Digital Competitiveness Ranking (DCR). This report ranked the Philippines 56th out of 63 economies, a 10-place decline from the previous year. Among Asia-Pacific countries, the Philippines placed 12th out of 14. Overall, the DCR was topped by the United States, followed by Singapore (2nd), Sweden (3rd), Denmark (4th) and Switzerland (5th). The bottom-ranked countries were Venezuela (63rd), Indonesia (62nd), Mongolia (61st), Peru (60th), and Colombia (59th).

Single title

Federal Governments Around the World: A Comparative Perspective

Proposals for the Philippine government to shift to a federal form of government appear to imply that such form of government is ‘better’ than unitary governments and that all federal governments operate the same. The study sheds light on this misguided idea by examining the similarities and differences of 15 federal governments around the world. Various data on different indicators concerning a federal government’s history, sociopolitical and cultural context, their form of government and fiscal federal features were utilized. Comparison-and-contrast is done on these federal governments against a set of indicators and assessed if they follow the theoretical features of federalism. Federal governments were then grouped according to income and equality to check if a pattern may be observed in terms of federal characteristics. The results reiterate existing literature that similarities between federal governments are only limited to their foundational elements—constitutions and an outline of expenditure and revenue responsibilities. Apart from this, there is no one-size-fits-all form of government as presented by the wide differences in the indicators. Also, even when federal governments were grouped according to income or according to equality, no distinct pattern can be observed between the groupings. Further, numerous examples of divergence between theoretical principles and actual practice (through the constitution) have been outlined. Finally, federal governments are constantly evolving organizations, frequently experiencing constitutional amendments and experiencing amendments according to political desirability.

Single title

An Empirical Analysis of Decentralization and Poverty in the Philippines

Decentralization is a popular component of public sector reform in many developing countries. Local governments are thought to be able to adapt more quickly to local conditions and to respond more appropriately to the needs of their citizens. However, decentralization also has drawbacks. Foremost is the efficiency advantage of the central government in providing public services because of economies of scale and better access to resources. The empirical literature on the effect of decentralization on development shows mixed results depending on the decentralization measure, outcome variables, and countries covered. This study looked at the relationship between decentralization and poverty using data from Philippine cities and municipalities. Results suggest that decentralization, as represented by fiscal autonomy and measured by the share of locally-sourced revenues to total local government revenues, is indeed associated with lower poverty. However, this relationship is not linear – the marginal effect of decentralization on poverty diminishes as decentralization increases. Moreover, decentralization moderates the positive effect of good governance on poverty reduction; and the magnitude of the relationship between poverty and decentralization is stronger in poorer municipalities than in richer ones.

Single title

Tracking Philippine Competitiveness: The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2018

The Philippines ranked 50th out of 63 countries in the 2018 World Competitiveness Yearbook (WCY), down nine notches from last year’s 41st. Over the last half decade, the Philippines’ ranking fluctuated in the low 40s, similarly placing 41st in 2015 and 42nd in 2014 and 2016. Among the 14 Asia-Pacific economies in WCY, the Philippines ranked 13th, down from 11th in 2017. The Philippines’ nine-place decline is the largest drop among countries in the Asia and the Pacific region this year.

Single title

Traversing The Challenges

by Benedikt Seemann, Tonette de Jesus

Political, Economic and Environmental Dimensions of Maritime and Regional Security
This publication offers comprehensive analyses on the most important aspects regarding the South China Sea disputes and questions of maritime security as well as regional cooperation.

Single title

Manual on Political Party Management and Local Party Work

by Benedikt Seemann, Atty Benedicto Bacani

The political entity that will one day be called the Bangsamoro needs democrats to make it work. Regardless of whether the future will bring a new autonomous region or a federal region – the fate and well-being of the people depends on their ability to govern themselves.