Bioterrorist Activities in the Middle East/Gulf, the European Union and the United States
A Critical Review of the U.S.-dominated Literature Ranging from Super/Mega- to Low-tech/Amateurish Terrorism
Why have biological weapons (BW) not been widely used by terrorists? This longitudinal study takes a new look at this old question. It looks again at the almost forgotten initial comprehensive work on “Superviolence” 1972. It questions the main thesis of the Harvard/Belfer Center volume “America’s Achilles’ Heel” (1998) written in the shadow of the ‘bio-chem clouds’ of the lethal Tokyo incidents of 1995, which opened a new area in terrorism and research on this subject. Finally, it scrutinizes the writings of prominent and productive terrorist researchers Jeffrey D. Simon and Gar A. Ackerman especially closely.