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Russia in the Middle East

Strategies and Interests

Hamas' terrorist attack on Israel and the resurgence of a hot Middle East conflict in October 2023 is attracting the attention not only of regional actors but also of the global community. Russia's reaction in particular is being watched with great interest. Russia, as the legal successor state of the Soviet Union, has a deep-rooted history of engagement in the Middle East. In addition to current Russian reactions to the Middle East conflict, this report is dedicated to the historical role of the Soviet Union and Russia in the region and highlights Russian interests in the Middle East.

Adobe Stock/ nadezhda1906

Pathways to the third child

An international comparison of family policy measures

As demographic change progresses, the question of the third child plays a central role in the context of discussions on the development of birth rates. What factors influence the decision of couples to realise their desire for more children and what family policy measures are used to support multi-child families in France and Scandinavia, for example?

Adobe Stock / vepar5

The Democratic Republic of the Congo before the election

The Democratic Republic of Congo with its 100 million inhabitants votes in December - an opportunity and a challenge

On 20 December 2023, the people of Africa's second largest country, which has been ravaged by crises, mismanagement and war, will be called upon to take part in a mega-event: they will simultaneously elect the President of the Republic, the 500 members of the National Assembly, the representatives of the 26 provincial parliaments and, for the first time, the members of the municipal councils (city councils). President Félix Tshisekedi, the country's former beacon of hope, is standing for re-election. The presidential candidates all come from the well-known political class. However, the opposition candidates are primarily criticising the current government and the election process. Political parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are rarely guided by traditional ideological or democratic principles; they are often linked to tangible economic interests. In the past, there have been repeated cases of unrest after elections - in a country the size of Western Europe.

IMAGO / NurPhoto

Facing difficult dilemmas

Rishi Sunak and the Tories ahead of the 2024 elections

In the polls, the opposition Labour Party is far ahead of the ruling Conservatives. With the appointment of David Cameron as Foreign Secretary, Prime Minister Rishi Sunak, who is under immense pressure, has certainly pulled off a coup. This risky move hints at the outlines of the strategy the British Conservatives will take into the 2024 election year.

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V.

Ameniens ambitionierte Ziele für eine (bildungs-)inklusive Gesellschaft 2025

Inklusion weltweit – Aktueller Stand aus Armenien

Armenien ist eines von drei Ländern im Südkaukasus und ein Nachfolgestaat der Sowjetunion. Es unternimmt seit Jahren sehr positive Bemühungen im Bereich der Bildungsinklusion, ist aber noch entfernt davon, eine inklusive Gesellschaft zu sein. In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Büro der Menschenrechtsbeauftragten der Republik Armenien, erstellte die Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung im Südkaukasus im letzten Jahr eine Studie zu den Hürden für Menschen mit Behinderungen in Armenien.


Security alliance AUKUS

A tectonic shift in the strategic balance in the Indo-Pacific?

Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America are creating the basis for a new powerful naval power in the Pacific. It can permanently change the balance of power between China and the USA and their Western allies in the Indo-Pacific region. The construction of nuclear-powered attack submarines and the stationing of American and British submarines in Australian harbours will significantly increase the military deterrent potential of the three Western allies. How will the agreement be implemented in practice and what significance does it have for Europe?

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V.

„Leaving No One Behind?“ – Inklusion in Japan im Stresstest

Inklusion weltweit – Aktueller Stand aus Japan

Der erste Blick auf die Straßen Japans verheißt Gutes: die gelben, gerillt und genoppten Markierungen ziehen sich wie ein stetes Band entlang der Fahr- und Fußwege, entlang an Überquerungen und Bahnsteigen. Fast überall im Land finden Menschen mit eingeschränkter Sehkraft sicher ihren Weg. Wenige wissen, dass diese taktilen oder tastbaren Pflastersteine einst in der Okayama Präfektur erfunden wurden. Erste behindertengerechte Vorkehrungen reichen in Japan sogar 700 Jahre zurück; seh- und gehbehinderte Menschen hatten je nach Art ihrer Arbeit sogar ein Anrecht auf Sänften.

IMAGO / Xinhua

A leap into the unknown

Libertarian Javier Milei is the new president of Argentina

The winner of the run-off election for the office of President of Argentina is Javier Milei. The libertarian candidate from the La Libertad Avanza party, which was only founded two years ago, won a surprisingly clear victory with 55.69% of the vote and a lead of over 11% against the Peronist candidate and incumbent Minister of Economy and Finance Sergio Massa with 44.3%. In the general elections on October 22, the latter had been able to claim first place in the voters' favor with just under 37% of the vote and a 7% lead over Milei. Voter turnout was 76.35% and the proportion of abstentions was lower than expected at 1.55%, with 1.62% of votes being invalid. The Libertarian won in 20 of the 23 provinces and in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires. He probably also owes his clear victory to the support of prominent figures from the conservative Propuesta Republicana (PRO) party. Although their presidential candidate Patricia Bullrich did not make it into the run-off, almost 24% of voters had given her their vote in October. Just three days after the election, both former President Mauricio Macri and Patricia Bullrich publicly spoke out in favor of Milei and against Massa. However, the initial euphoria over the election victory could quickly evaporate, even for the newly elected president, against the backdrop of the enormous challenges, particularly in economic policy.

David Canales / Zuma Press / ContactoPhoto (europa press)

Re-election of Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez

Fragile minority government will increase polarization

Pedro Sánchez (PSOE) has been re-elected as Prime Minister of the Spanish government with the help of separatist parties from Catalonia and the Basque Country. He is imposing a high price on Spain for his decision. The country is more divided than ever. The relatively young democracy is in danger of being compromised.

Adobe Stock / Pamela Ranya

Chad - The next candidate for upheaval in the Sahel?

An important partner in the Sudan crisis

Is Chad the next candidate for upheaval in the Sahel? The Central African country looks more stable than Mali, Niger or Burkina Faso. Chad is an important Western ally in a volatile region where Russia has been expanding in its neighbours Libya, Sudan and the Central African Republic and also a key humanitarian hub as some half a million refugees have fled civil war in Sudan. But military president Mahamat Deby has been cracking down on the opposition and delaying elections. He has come also under criticism for working closely with France. So how stable is Chad?