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Laws and Rulings

Translated into Arabic


German Statutes on Child Protection - Arabic Translations

"JGG" and "KKG" in Arabic

Translations of the German Juvenile Courts Act ("JGG") and Law on Cooperation and Information in Child Protection ("KKG") into the Arabic language are available here.

Translation into Arabic: the German Federal Constitutional Court decision on "Climate Change"

The Federal Constitutional Court decision on Climate Change Order of 24 March 2021 - 1 BvR 2656/18

In an order, the First Senate of the Federal Constitutional Court held that the provisions of the Federal Climate Change Act of 12 December 2019 (Bundes-Klimaschutzgesetz – KSG) governing national climate targets and the annual emission amounts allowed until 2030 are incompatible with fundamental rights insofar as they lack sufficient specifications for further emission reductions from 2031 onwards. In all other respects, the constitutional complaints were rejected.

Translation into Arabic: the COVID-19 Decision Pressrelease

Press Release No. 101/2021 of 30 November 2021, Order of 19 November 2021

Unsuccessful constitutional complaints regarding curfews and contact restrictions in the Fourth Act to Protect the Population During an Epidemic Situation of National Significance (“federal pandemic emergency brake”) Press Release No. 101/2021 of 30 November 2021.

Rules of Procedure of the German Federal Constitutional Court (GOBVerfG)

Legal Texts translated into Arabic

The Rules of Procedure of the German Federal Constitutional Court (GOBVerfG) are the organizational framework for the day-to-day functioning of the Constitutional Court.

Administrative Procedure Act (VwVfG)

Legal text translated into Arabic

The Administrative Procedure Act (VwVfG) is the normative basis of the administrative procedure and thus regulates the proceedings of authorities. It is, therefore, one of the most important pieces of legislation of the executive branch. Due to the federal structure of the Federal Republic of Germany, a distinction must be made between the administrative procedure laws of the federal states and administrative procedure law of the Federal Government, which is the subject of this legal text.

Code of Administrative Court Procedure (VwGO)

Legal Texts translated into Arabic

The power to review and correct administrative decisions is one important instrument to ensure that decisions of public bodies and authorities are subject to legal scrutiny and control. This power can either be given to judicial or to non-judicial bodies. In Germany, this power review is divided between judicial and non-judicial bodies, although the ultimate power of review remains with the judicative. The Code of Administrative Court Procedure (Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung) regulates the administrative court procedure and the administrative court system in Germany.

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About this series

Bridging legal language barriers


The rule of law has always, but particularly been noteworthy in the Arab world since the 2011 popular uprisings that reformed the institutions in several countries of the region such as Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Libya and more. Laws and rulings present the norms in which society must conduct itself in. In many of the countries in the region, many laws are unimplemented, are selectively implemented or even are impossible to implement. Alongside the slow socio-economic growth these countries are facing – notably due to ongoing crisis across the region -, societies in the MENA region have to some degree still not grown accustomed to the importance of laws and rulings in organizing their societies.


As a result of Germany’s dark Nazi past, the country’s "Basic Law" (Grundgesetz) of 1949 has seen significant value within its people, as they see it as a sign of national pride. The members of the drafting constitutional council spelled out the essence of what they considered to be essential lessons for building a democratic state that upholds the rule of law and protects human dignity (Menschenwürde) against all imaginable future threats. The Grundgesetz created a legal framework for a stable and sustainable democracy, making it an obligation for the executive, legislative and judiciary powers to conform to these laws and the seperation of powers. With time, both laws and rulings have created a stable framework in which society and public institutions simultaneously work together in preserving individual rights.


In Middle Eastern and North African countries, there has been a steady evolution of law and legal systems, resulting from a mix between westernized “modern” influence as well as keeping its traditional values in place. Efforts in modernizing judicial and legal practices using western legal means have been a helpful tool in spreading democracy in the region. As part of this series, the Rule of Law Programme Middle East & North Africa translates court decisions and laws from German into Arabic. These efforts will permit young scholars to explore the importance of legislative and judicial work in developing a sustainable democratic system.


Beirut, 2023; by Philipp Bremer & Ahmad Jenzarli

Philipp Bremer

Portrait von Philipp Bremer

Head of the Rule of Law Program Middle East and North Africa +961 1 385 094 | +961 1 395 094