Path to COP28
At COP27, it was possible to avoid falling behind previous agreements in the area of emissions reduction, but significant progress was not achieved. The goal of the Paris Agreement was reaffirmed and countries were asked to improve their national climate protection plans by the next COP. Due to a lack of readiness and ambition and no clear commitment to phase out all fossil fuels, reaching the 1.5 degree target seems increasingly unlikely. One exception was the planned fund to compensate damage and loss, which is to benefit vulnerable developing countries in particular. The exact design of the fund and the volume of the financial instrument remain open. Moreover, it is unclear whether economically strong emerging countries such as China or India will participate. Overall, how difficult partners are dealt with will be decisive for international climate policy.
In view of the insufficient progress made by the international community in the fight against climate change, cooperation and alliances at the level of the G20 states could represent an important lever for achieving the climate goals and help implement the principle of common but differentiated responsibility in the shift away from fossil fuels.